A cross-sectional, multicenter survey of the prevalence and risk… – Nature. com

To date, only one small survey has investigated the actual condition of Long COVID or COVID-19 sequelae in the particular Japanese population 19 , plus Long COVID is poorly understood in Japan. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, only a few studies have conducted a large-scale investigation globally regarding COVID-19 sequelae, and no study has examined the risk factors for each persisting symptom separately. We assessed the duration and severity of each persisting symptom; and identified the sequelae that have long-term effects on the QOL.

Of the study participants, 56. 1% had one or more sequelae at the time of completing the particular questionnaire, approximately 1  year (median) post-infection. According to a report from Italy, 87. 4% of infected individuals had one or more sequelae 2  months after infection 16 . Similarly, the report through China suggested that some symptoms persisted in 76% of infected individuals 6  months post-infection 18 . Considering the long period of symptoms in our own study compared to these studies, a slightly lower prevalence associated with sequelae may be reasonable. If the severity from the symptoms is not considered, even > 50% of infected individuals with mild COVID-19 has one or even more sequelae (Table 2 ). Furthermore, the prevalence associated with Long COVID was similar in the particular Mild plus Severe groups, showing that will Long COVID is not dependent on the initial disease severity. The distribution of symptoms differed between the particular acute phase and 1-year post-infection. This tendency was similar regardless of COVID-19 severity. Comparing the distribution of sequelae at the time associated with answering the particular questionnaire inside the Mild group, Severe group, and overall, the distribution has been similar; fatigue, alopecia, concentration problems, memory problems, plus sleeplessness persisted among ≥ 10% of participants. In a previous report, fatigue, cough, red eyes, and dyspnea were observed in > 30% of participants 2–3  weeks after COVID-19 onset 15 . Similarly, in a survey conducted 4–8  several weeks post-COVID-19 onset, fatigue, dyspnea, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression, plus concentration problems persisted in > 30% associated with patients in the intensive care unit and general ward 17 . In addition, in the study of patients 6  months right after COVID-19 starting point, fatigue had been the most common persistent symptom, persisting among ≥ 60% of individuals, and sleep disorders and alopecia persisted among ≥ 20% of participants 18 . Consistent with previous studies 16 , 22 , 23 , fatigue was the particular most typical persistent symptom in our research. Other signs and symptoms varied among studies—they might be influenced by the time of the study, the particular epidemic strain of SARS-CoV-2, and ethnicity.

Regarding the effects of each persistent sign on the QOL, we considered the particular symptom intensity score associated with 3–4 in order to be the most influential. In both Moderate and Serious groups, many participants had severe symptoms of alopecia, concentration issues, memory difficulties, sleeplessness, plus joint pain (Supplementary Tables S2 and S3 ). Symptoms that strongly manifested in the Slight group were also highly exhibited within the Severe group. Additionally, in the Severe team, persistent coughing, sputum production, fatigue, dyspnea, lack of appetite, red eyes, plus diarrhea affected the QOL. Thus, even more severe COVID-19 is associated with a greater diversity of sequelae affecting the particular QOL.

Moreno-Pérez et al. 22 analyzed risk factors for COVID-19 sequelae and detected no significant risk aspects. This may be because the investigators did not consider the risk elements separately with regard to each indicator Therefore, all of us analyzed the particular factors related to each prolonged symptom. Persistent sputum manufacturing and dyspnea were strongly related to the severity associated with COVID-19 (Fig.   3 ). Further, although the OR was low for cough, it was 1 of the particular most common respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 and was associated with the severity of the disease. The higher the severity of COVID-19, the greater the organic damage caused towards the lungs, and the intensity might be strongly associated with these types of respiratory sequelae. According to previous studies, more severe COVID-19 is of a decrease within the residual air volume and diffusivity 18 . Furthermore, people with dyspnea have low forced vital capacity, low forced expiratory volume in 1  s plus diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and restrictive ventilatory patterns 24 . Greater severity and severe acute organic lung damage may cause the persistence of respiratory symptoms. In addition to respiratory signs and symptoms, chest discomfort, sore throat, plus diarrhea had been closely associated with COVID-19 severity and sequelae. The particular association between gastrointestinal symptoms and COVID-19 may be due to disturbances within the immune system plus intestinal flora 25 , and diarrhea offers previously been reported to be associated with COVID-19 severity 26 . Patients with more severe COVID-19 might develop sequelae because of extensive immune system activation and disruptions in the intestinal flora. Myocardial inflammation offers been reported to persist for up to 71  days post-COVID-19 and may be connected with long lasting chest pain 27 . It is unknown whether sore throat is caused by Lengthy COVID. Hence, further research is needed to explain the direct causal relationship among diarrhea plus sore throat as sequelae and COVID-19 severity.

Fatigue, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, and sleeplessness as sequelae were not associated with COVID-19 intensity. It provides previously already been reported that fatigue is not related to COVID-19 severity 28 . Thus, individuals such as, young people, those without any underlying illness, vaccinated individuals, and those with a previous history of COVID-19, may experience these sequelae, despite being at lower risk of developing serious disease. Therefore , preventing infection is important until there is treatment available regarding specific COVID-19 sequelae.

In the context of recovery time from symptoms associated with fatigue, alopecia, and sleeplessness, it had been noticed that many patients (over 50%) failed to recover from their symptoms even after ≥ 1  12 months of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms were unrelated to COVID-19 intensity, suggesting that will even mildly ill people may experience sequelae over a long period. Therefore, attention should be paid to sequelae of the particular Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, which has been dominant in 2022 and is considered highly infectious and slightly severe 29 , 30 , 31 .

Our study has some limitations. First, it was a cross-sectional research; thus, the time from condition occurrence in order to investigation varied among individuals, and sufferers could have got been contaminated with different viral strains or variants. We could not really investigate the infecting stress in every patient. Second, selection bias could affect the participant’s willingness to participate, plus recall prejudice may be involved in the severity of sequelae symptoms 32 . People with Long COVID are more likely to participate in questionnaire research about COVID-19 sequelae. Conversely, people without sequelae are more likely to be uninterested in the study and, consequently, may not have participated. Additional, we may possess overestimated the particular prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae. Accuracy associated with memory and recall might also vary among individuals for extreme symptoms. Finally, although we all obtained new findings on risk factors for COVID-19 sequelae, it is difficult in order to propose countermeasures to prevent the sequelae of COVID-19 besides infection prevention and control.

In conclusion, this study revealed a high prevalence of sequelae approximately 1  year after COVID-19. Exhaustion, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, plus sleeplessness as sequelae associated with COVID-19 can affect the particular QOL, even in individuals along with asymptomatic or mild disease, as well as the sequelae are prolonged. Thus, preventing COVID-19 will be important even among individuals who are not at the risk of severe illness.

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